A PRODUÇÃO FAMILIAR DE GALINHAS NAS ZONAS RURAIS DE ÁFRICA: CARACTERÍSTICAS E LIMITAÇÕES

Alice Garcês, Filomena dos Anjos

Resumo


Quase todas as famílias rurais africanas criam galinhas, geração após geração, que fazem parte importante de um sistema de produção de subsistência equilibrado e desempenham um papel único na vida dos camponeses. As aves contribuem para o rendimento, diversidade dos meios de sustento e para a segurança alimentar dos agregados familiares; desempenham múltiplos papéis sociais e culturais relevantes; são particularmente importantes para o cumprimento das responsabilidades que estão a cargo da mulher e contribuem económica e socialmente para a equidade do género; permitem aos camponeses mais pobres subirem a ‘escada pecuária’ e obter espécies de maior valor, aumentando assim o seu património e as suas actividades económicas. Os ecotipos indígenas estão bem adaptados aos diversos ambientes rurais e asseguram naturalmente a reprodução e criação da descendência. A sua produção é baixa, mas é obtida com pouco insumos em termos de alojamento, controlo sanitário, maneio reprodutivo e alimentação suplementar. Vários factores intrínsecos e extrínsecos ao sistema de produção limitam o desenvolvimento das criações avícolas familiares.
Palavras-chave: galinhas rurais, sistema de produção extensivo, características sócio-culturais, parâmetros produtivos e reprodutivos, constrangimentos.

 


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Referências


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